How to Do Legal Research at the Law Library 如何做法律研究,在法律图书馆

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One of the secrets to success in law school is knowing where to find an answer, and find it quickly.其中的秘密,成功的在法学院是知道在哪里可以找到一个答案,并找到它很快。 Lawyers aren’t expected to know the answer to every legal question, but they are expected to know where to find the answers.律师预计将无法知道答案,每一个法律的问题,但预料他们知道在哪里可以找到答案。

Hours of legal research can be wasted if law students look in the wrong books.小时的法律研究,可以浪费,如果法律系学生看在错误的书籍。 One key to success in law school studying and legal research is knowing where to look for an answer.一个成功的关键在法学院学习法律方面的研究是不知道在哪里寻找一个答案。

To find an answer quickly, a law student must (1) know the resources in a law library, (2) know which resource is best for a law student’s particular question, and finally, know how to use that resource.为了找到答案很快,法律,学生必须( 1 )知道资源在一个法律图书馆, ( 2 )知道哪些资源是最好的一法律系学生的特殊问题,最后,知道如何使用资源。

I learned this approach from law review editors when I served on law review.我知道这种做法从法律审查的编辑,当我送达有关法律审查。 I still use this approach as an attorney today.我仍然使用这种方法,作为一个检察长今天。

Where to Start从哪里开始

Some law students start their research by searching cases in WestLaw.一些法律系的学生开始他们的研究寻找案件在westlaw 。 Normally this is a big waste of time.通常这是一个很大的浪费了时间。 Law students can spend hours reading through cases that match a search criterion without ever finding a case that answers their question.法律系学生可以花时间读通过案件相匹配的搜索标准,从来没有找到一个案件的答复他们的问题。

Although research should end by finding a primary authority (case or statute) that answers your research question, the best place to start is with a secondary authority or even at the reference desk.虽然研究应为此找到一个小学管理局(案件或规约)表示,研究回答您的问题,最好的地方,开始是与一个次要的权力或什至在参考咨询台。

Reference Desk . 参考咨询台 If you are not sure where to start your legal research, ask an expert.如果您不知道从哪里开始您的法律研究,咨询专家。 Reference librarians are paid to point law students in the right direction.参考馆员均支付给点,法律系学生在正确的方向前进。 Not only that, but most reference librarians enjoy this aspect of their job most.不仅如此,但大部分参考馆员享有这方面的工作最。 Ask the reference librarian how he or she would start researching your particular legal issue.请问参考馆员他或她是怎样将开始研究您的特定的法律问题。

Secondary Authorities . 中学当局 Once you get the hang of legal research, you may want to skip the conversation with your reference librarian and go straight to the materials that the reference librarian will likely recommend: secondary authorities.一旦你得到坑的法律研究,您可能会想要跳过的谈话与您的参考馆员和直行到的材料说,参考馆员可能会建议:中学当局。 Although each research project is different, the best approach is normally to start by using a secondary authority rather than primary authority.虽然每个研究项目是不同的,最好的办法是,通常开始用中学管理局,而非小学管理局。

Secondary Authorities中学当局

What is a “Secondary Authority?” The answer to this question involves understanding the nature of a “primary authority.” A “primary authority” is simply a law.什么是“次要的权力” ?这个问题的答案,了解涉及的性质是“第一权威” , “小学管理局” ,简直是法律。 The law may be a statute, rule, or case established by a government authority.法可能章程,规则,或个案成立,由政府机构。 Unlike a “primary authority,” a “secondary authority” is legal reference material that is not the law.有别于“小学管理局” , “二手房委会”是合法的参考材料,这不是法律。 Secondary authorities include treatises, hornbooks, law review articles, legal encyclopedias, and potentially study aids.中学当局,包括论文, hornbooks ,法律审查的文章,法律百科全书,和潜在的学习器材。

Study Aids . 研究爱滋病的认识 Study aids are great way to get an overview of the legal concepts and terms involved in the area of law you want to research.研究艾滋病都是伟大的办法让概述了有关的法律概念和术语,所涉及的法律领域,你要研究。 Don’t rely on a study aid to give you an accurate legal rule for your jurisdiction, but study aids provide useful overviews of the law.不依赖于研究援助给你一个准确的法律规则为您的管辖范围,但艾滋病的研究提供了有用的概述了法律。 After reviewing a study aid for a few minutes, you should have a general understanding of the concepts you need to research, and you should be able to make a list of the terms you want include in your research.经检讨研究援助几分钟,你应该有一个一般的了解概念,你需要研究,您应该能够作出的名单条款您想要包括在您的研究。

Hornbooks . hornbooks Hornbooks are essentially short treatises. hornbooks基本上是短期的论文。 Hornbooks could also be considered advanced study aids. hornbooks也可以视为先进的艾滋病研究。 A Hornbook gives an overview of the law and cites to authorities (mostly cases) to assist in your legal research. 1 hornbook给出了一个概述了国际法和濒危物种贸易公约,以当局(主要是案件) ,以协助在您的法律研究。 Hornbooks are great for learning concepts. hornbooks都是伟大的学习概念。

Hornbooks are more comprehensive than study aids and, unlike study aids, Hornbooks provide citations to cases. hornbooks是更全面的,比研究艾滋病和不同,研究艾滋病, hornbooks提供引文案件。 However, Hornbooks are not as comprehensive as treatises, and while treatises may cite a number of cases or cases in each jurisdiction, Hornbooks have relatively few citations.不过, hornbooks不全面论文,而论文可以举出一个个案数目或案件在每个司法管辖区, hornbooks有相对较少引用。

Legal Encyclopedias (Amjur) . 法律百科全书( amjur ) Legal encyclopedias allow you to look up a term or topic to find a quick explanation and possibly a reference to additional information about the concept.法律百科全书,让您看的任期或主题,以找到一个快速解释,并可能参考如需有关的概念。 American Jurisprudence (Am Jur 2d) and Corpus Juris Secundum (CJS) are two of the most popular legal encyclopedias.美国的判例(上午jur二维)和大全secundum ( cjs )是两个最热门的法律百科全书。 Legal encyclopedias can help law students quickly find legal materials on a topic.法律百科全书可以帮助法律系学生迅速找到法律材料的一个主题。

Law Review and Law Journal Articles . 法律审查和法律期刊文章 Law review articles and law journal articles (hereinafter “law review articles”) are great for evolving areas of the law or when you find a recent article directly on your topic.法律审查的文章和法律学刊的文章(以下简称“公司法检讨文章” )都是伟大的,为不断发展的法律范畴,或当您找到最近的一篇文章直接对您的主题。

Law review articles are generally essays written by attorneys, law professors, judges, and law students on a legal topic.法律审查的文章,一般的论文写的律师,法学教授,法官,和法律系学生对法律的话题。 Law review articles can be hit-or-miss.法律审查的文章,可以击中-或者-小姐。 That is, if you find a law review article on the exact topic you are researching, it can be invaluable.也就是说,如果您找到一个法律审查的文章的确切主题中,您正在研究,可以宝贵的。 But you may not find a law review article on your topic.但你可能找不到一个法律审查文章对您的主题。

Also, law review articles may be outdated.此外,法律审查的文章,可能已经过时。 Once a law review article is published, it is never updated.法律一旦检讨文章发表,这是从来没有更新。 This is unlike treatises, Hornbooks, and other legal authorities, which are normally updated.这是不同的论文, hornbooks ,和其他法律当局,这是通常更新。

ALR . 的ALR A quick scan of the ALR index can help you determine whether an ALR article exists for your topic.快速扫描该指数的ALR可以帮助您确定是否有存在的ALR的文章,为您的主题。 American Law Reports, or ALR, are similar to law review articles.美国法律报告,或邮件,类似的法律审查的文章。 However, ALRs are occasionally updated, are often published by noted authors, and are often more comprehensive than a law review article.不过, alrs偶尔更新,往往是出版的作者指出,而且往往是更全面的比法律审查的文章。 There is not an ALR on every legal concept, but when there is, an ALR can be wonderful.有没有一的ALR对每一个法律概念,但是,当有,一的ALR可太好了。 ALRs are most common on popular legal issue that have many cases on the topic. alrs是最常见的流行的法律问题有许多情况下,关于这个专题。

Treatises . 论文 Treatises are a great way to learn about a topic and find some cases that relate to the topic.论文是一个伟大的方式了解的一个话题,并找到一些案件涉及到的话题。 A treatise is a comprehensive analysis of a legal subject written by a legal expert.一伤寒是一个全面的分析,一个法律主体的书面由一名法律专家。 Treatises normally are long enough to encompass many volumes.论文通常是长期的,足以涵盖许多卷。

Treatises have a table of contents and an index that allows law students to quickly see if the treatise covers a certain topic.论文有一个目录和一个索引,让法律系学生很快地看到,如果论文涵盖了某些话题。 Some treatises have been cited by judges in many cases, which makes those treatises especially authoritative.一些论文被引用的法官在许多情况下,使得这些论文,特别是具有权威性。

Primary Authorities小学当局

Primary authorities include cases and statutes.小学当局,包括案件和法规。 Primary authorities are where you want to end your legal research, because primary authorities are the law.小学当局想要结束您的法律研究,主要是因为当局的法律。 However, because primary authorities are not organized by subject and lack the reference and research benefits of secondary authorities, primary authorities are far more difficult to search than secondary authorities.不过,由于小学当局没有举办的主题和缺乏参考和研究的好处,当局中学,小学,当局至今更难以搜索,比中学当局。 As a result, research that starts with secondary authorities is generally quicker and more efficient than starting with primary authorities.因此,研究始于中学当局通常是更快和更有效率的比开始的首要当局。

You can research these in books or online using a service like WestLaw, Lexis, or another service, if you have a subscription.你可以研究这些在书本上或网上使用的服务一样, westlaw ,词汇,或另一项服务,如果您有一个订阅。 Primary authorities are often available on the internet, but the advanced search features provided by the paid services is still far better than searches on the internet.小学当局往往在互联网上提供,但先进的搜索功能所提供的有偿服务仍是远胜于搜索在互联网上。 Still, I must admit that a Google search will often helped find a case or statute that could not easily be found using the paid legal services.仍然,我必须承认, Google搜索,往往会帮助找到一个案件或规约不能轻易发现使用有偿法律服务。

Conclusion结论

As you get to know your law library, where legal research materials are located, and how to use those materials, you will be able to adapt your research approach to each individual research project.正如你去了解您的法律图书馆,那里的法律研究材料的位置,以及如何使用这些材料,您将能够适应您的研究方法,每一个人的研究项目。 You will know whether to start with a study aid, Hornbook, treatise, legal encyclopedia, or some other item.你就会知道是否启动与研究援助, hornbook ,伤寒,法律百科全书,或其他一些项目。

For example, if you know nothing about a topic, you might want a quick overview in simple terms.例如,如果您一无所知的一个话题,您可能会想要快速总览在简单的条款。 For a case like this, a study aid is perfect.对于这种情况,研究援助是十全十美的。

If you know a lot about a topic, you know there are many cases on the topic, and you need a case from a particular jurisdiction, starting with an ALR or treatise could be perfect.如果你知道了很多关于一个话题,你知道有很多情况下,关于这个专题,您需要一个案件从特定的管辖范围,开始与一的ALR或论文可以完美的。

Regardless of the topic, you might also want to ask a reference librarian if the library has a particular resource that focuses on your research topic.不论这个主题,您也可能要问,一参考馆员,如果图书馆有一个特别的资源集中在您的研究课题。

There isn’ta simple 3-step approach to legal research.有不是简单的三步骤的方式进行法律研究。 Success comes from understanding the legal authorities and how to use them.成功来自于认识法律授权和如何使用它们。 When you do this, you will be able to customize a plan for each research project, saving yourself hours of researching in the wrong places.当您这样做,您将可以自订计划,为每个研究项目,节省自己的时间,研究在错误的地方。


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